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Causes and treatment of dark spots on the face

Causes and treatment of dark spots on the face

Dark spots are characterized by local discolouration of the skin due to excessive melanin production. They are not superficial like brown spots; they are skin discolourations created in deeper layers of the skin. They mostly appear in women at the age of 20 – 40 years.

The main causes of their appearance are the following:

1. Solar Radiation. Prolonged sun exposure without the use of protective sunscreen or its incorrect use. It is recommended to apply sun protection at least 15 minutes before sun exposure with protection index SPF 30 – SPF 50 and renew it every 2 hours, after heavy sweating and after swimming.
2. Pregnancy / Contraceptives / Medication. Usually, in these cases the appearance of dark spots is due to hormonal disorders. It is possible for the dark spots to subside or fade away after giving birth or stop taking the medication.
3. Oxidative Stress: Oxidative stress is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body, which can lead to cell and tissue damage. Oxidative stress occurs naturally and plays a role in the aging process. Our body’s defense mechanism is always ready to deal with external threats. In the case of oxidative stress, free radicals are produced, which as a result, our body perceives them as an “enemy”, therefore it quickly deals with them, resulting in the formation of dark spots.

4. Waxing: This method of hair removal should be avoided in cases where the skin is hypersensitive since this procedure creates inflammation resulting in dark spots

Prevention/ Treatment:

The most important thing of all is to apply sun protection all year round and reapply it every 2 hours.
Use of professional cosmetic products in combination with professional treatments carried out by professionals (beautician or doctor).
It is also important to avoid treatments which trigger skin inflammation e.g waxing of sensitive areas or coming into direct contact with sunlight.

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